Today marks the 498th birthday of Mary I, the first woman to rule England in her own right. On 18 February 1516, after several miscarriages, Catherine of Aragon gave birth to her only surviving child, a daughter named Mary Tudor, first child of the notorious Henry VIII of England. She would be baptized into the Catholic faith at three days of age, just a few years before her father would be excommunicated from the Catholic Church and develop the Church of England. When her parents’ messy divorce was finalized, Mary, at seventeen, was declared a bastard and barred from the line of succession, but was reinstated as second in line for the throne following her younger half-brother Edward VI, her half-sister Elizabeth following. Mary was crowned on 1 October 1553, after which she married Philip II, acting king of Spain and son of her cousin Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. She died after a five year reign at the age of 42 due to influenza. Mary is best remembered for executing Protestants in an effort to reinstate the Catholic faith to England, though she ultimately failed to do so when the Protestant Elizabeth I took the throne as her successor.